RHEL7: Configure a LDAP directory service for user connection.

Share this link

Presentation of LDAP

LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. It’s an open protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an IP network (source wikipedia).

Here it is used to facilitate user account administration. Instead of storing user accounts locally on each server, the LDAP directory stores them globally and makes them available to a group of servers.

This tutorial doesn’t explain how to set up the Automounter and the NFS services. It has been tested for RHEL 7.0, RHEL 7.1 and RHEL 7.2 (non-patched versions).

During this tutorial, try to follow the instructions very precisely because LDAP syntax is sometimes cumbersome (case sensitive, space, etc) and prone to errors (dn/dc/cn).

Let’s assume that we use the example.com domain and the instructor.example.com hostname (this hostname should be resolved either by the /etc/hosts file or by DNS).

Installation Procedure

Install the following packages:

# yum install -y openldap openldap-clients openldap-servers migrationtools

Generate a LDAP password from a secret key (here redhat):

# slappasswd -s redhat -n > /etc/openldap/passwd

Generate a X509 certificate valid for 365 days:

# openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -out /etc/openldap/certs/cert.pem \
-keyout /etc/openldap/certs/priv.pem -days 365
Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
.....+++
..............+++
writing new private key to '/etc/openldap/certs/priv.pem'
-----
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:
State or Province Name (full name) []:
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:instructor.example.com
Email Address []:

Secure the content of the /etc/openldap/certs directory:

# cd /etc/openldap/certs
# chown ldap:ldap *
# chmod 600 priv.pem

Prepare the LDAP database:

# cp /usr/share/openldap-servers/DB_CONFIG.example /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG

Generate database files (don’t worry about error messages!):

# slaptest
53d61aab hdb_db_open: database "dc=my-domain,dc=com": db_open(/var/lib/ldap/id2entry.bdb) failed: No such file or directory (2).
53d61aab backend_startup_one (type=hdb, suffix="dc=my-domain,dc=com"): bi_db_open failed! (2)
slap_startup failed (test would succeed using the -u switch)

Change LDAP database ownership:

# chown ldap:ldap /var/lib/ldap/*

Activate the slapd service at boot:

# systemctl enable slapd

Start the slapd service:

# systemctl start slapd

Check the LDAP activity:

# netstat -lt | grep ldap
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:ldap            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 [::]:ldap               [::]:*                  LISTEN

Alternatively, you can use: # ss -ltap | grep ldap

To start the configuration of the LDAP server, add the cosine & nis LDAP schemas:

# cd /etc/openldap/schema
# ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -D "cn=config" -f cosine.ldif
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
adding new entry "cn=cosine,cn=schema,cn=config"
# ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -D "cn=config" -f nis.ldif
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
adding new entry "cn=nis,cn=schema,cn=config"

Then, create the /etc/openldap/changes.ldif file and paste the following lines (replace passwd with the previously created password like {SSHA}l8A+0c+lRcymtWuIFbbc3EJ1PRZz9mGg ):

dn: olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcSuffix
olcSuffix: dc=example,dc=com

dn: olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcRootDN
olcRootDN: cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com

dn: olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcRootPW
olcRootPW: passwd # previously generated password (see above)

dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcTLSCertificateFile
olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/openldap/certs/cert.pem

dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile
olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/openldap/certs/priv.pem

dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcLogLevel
olcLogLevel: -1

dn: olcDatabase={1}monitor,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcAccess
olcAccess: {0}to * by dn.base="gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth" read by dn.base="cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com" read by * none

Send the new configuration to the slapd server:

# ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/changes.ldif
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config"
modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config"
modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config"
modifying entry "cn=config"
modifying entry "cn=config"
modifying entry "cn=config"
modifying entry "olcDatabase={1}monitor,cn=config"

Create the /etc/openldap/base.ldif file and paste the following lines:

dn: dc=example,dc=com
dc: example
objectClass: top
objectClass: domain

dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
ou: People
objectClass: top
objectClass: organizationalUnit

dn: ou=Group,dc=example,dc=com
ou: Group
objectClass: top
objectClass: organizationalUnit

Build the structure of the directory service:

# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f /etc/openldap/base.ldif
adding new entry "dc=example,dc=com"
adding new entry "ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"
adding new entry "ou=Group,dc=example,dc=com"

Create two users for testing:

# mkdir /home/guests
# useradd -d /home/guests/ldapuser01 ldapuser01
# passwd ldapuser01
Changing password for user ldapuser01.
New password: user01ldap
Retype new password: user01ldap
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
# useradd -d /home/guests/ldapuser02 ldapuser02
# passwd ldapuser02
Changing password for user ldapuser02.
New password: user02ldap
Retype new password: user02ldap
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

User Account Migration

Go to the directory for the migration of the user accounts:

# cd /usr/share/migrationtools

Edit the migrate_common.ph file and replace in the following lines:

$DEFAULT_MAIL_DOMAIN = "example.com";
$DEFAULT_BASE = "dc=example,dc=com";

Create the current users in the directory service:

# grep ":10[0-9][0-9]" /etc/passwd > passwd
# ./migrate_passwd.pl passwd users.ldif
# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f users.ldif
adding new entry "uid=ldapuser01,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"
adding new entry "uid=ldapuser02,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"
# grep ":10[0-9][0-9]" /etc/group > group
# ./migrate_group.pl group groups.ldif
# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f groups.ldif
adding new entry "cn=ldapuser01,ou=Group,dc=example,dc=com"
adding new entry "cn=ldapuser02,ou=Group,dc=example,dc=com"

Test the configuration with the user called ldapuser01:

# ldapsearch -x cn=ldapuser01 -b dc=example,dc=com

Firewall Configuration

Add a new service to the firewall (ldap: port tcp 389):

# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=ldap

Reload the firewall configuration:

# firewall-cmd --reload

Edit the /etc/rsyslog.conf file and add the following line:

local4.* /var/log/ldap.log

Restart the rsyslog service:

# systemctl restart rsyslog

Additional Resources

If you want to learn more about the LDAP topic, you can read this free LDAP book.
Fedora documentation‘s got a chapter about Configuring Directory Servers and OpenLDAP.
You can also read this tutorial about using OpenLDAP with MariaDB backend in Docker.
The Linoxide website provides a tutorial about Setting up OpenLDAP multi-master replication.
The learnitguide.net website offers a tutorial about Configuring an OpenLDAP server on RHEL 7.

(5 votes, average: 4.60 out of 5)
Loading...

Leave a Reply

83 Comments on "RHEL7: Configure a LDAP directory service for user connection."

Sort by:   newest | oldest
Member
gigtom

wow,good man, followed you line by line and LDAP server running very smoothly.
Questions:
How do you setup the GUI side
and
is one expected to set this up during RHCSA exam??

Member
redhatplayer

when I go to this command “ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f base.ldif”
an error msg shown : “base.ldif No such file or directory”

I follow your steps by coping and pasting the command to the command line. Do you have any suggestion to such problems. Thanks.

Member
china-student

[root@example migrationtools]# grep “:10[0-9][0-9]” /etc/passwd > passwd
[root@example migrationtools]# ./migrate_passwd.pl passwd users.ldif
[root@example migrationtools]# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f users.ldif
ldap_bind: Invalid credentials (49)
[root@example migrationtools]#
[root@example migrationtools]#

Member
Raul

Excellent article. Thanks for sharing. May I suggest though to replace the line containing:

ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f base.ldif

by:

ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f /etc/openldap/base.ldif

?

Member
timlee

everything was going fine until here please help:

[root@rhel7-testServer schema]# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f /etc/openldap/base.ldif
ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE): Can’t contact LDAP server (-1)

Member
reale1

All is well until I get to the ‘Build the structure of the directory service’ I run the ldapadd command and I get this error:
ber_get_next failed.
ldap_result: Can’t contact LDAP server (-1)

my server is running RHEL7.1 and selinux is permissive.

thanks in advance for any help you can provide.

Member
TCJ
Hi thanks for fantastic website. I only wish things could go smooth with me. You wrote: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -out /etc/openldap/certs/cert.pem -keyout I had to do this like this: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -keyout /etc/openldap/certs/cert.pem Then it worked. When you wrote: Generate a LDAP password from a secret key (here redhat): slappasswd -s redhat -n > /etc/openldap/passwd I just made up non-existing file, then created some secret key with ssh-keygen and replace redhat with it. However when I’m in config /etc/openldap/changes.ldif replace password with the previously created password) then what should I do ? Put plain text… Read more »
Member
jaaffersadiq

Excellent Article !! Can be treated a perfect walkthrough document for LDAP Server configuration in RHEL7 !! Cheers !!

Member
Phrosgone

Great tutorial, everything worked fine! Just one questions about the ports: In your tutorial you are opening port 389. As we are using a certificate and therefore ldaps, shouldn’t it be port 636?

Member
tron

Thanks for the tutorial.
On the 636 port thingy, I was also surprised for not using ldaps.
I found that to enable it, you should edit /etc/sysconfig/slapd and add ldaps:/// there in SLAPD_URLS.

Also, TLSCACertificateFile should be added according to OPENLDAP documentation (same cert in the case of a Self Signed Cert)

Member
kevbuntu

my server works if I user ldapwhoami ldap:/// but if I use ldaps:/// I would get:

ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE): Can’t contact LDAP server (-1)

and if I add this to /etc/sysconfig/slapd:
SLAPD_URLS=”ldapi:/// ldaps:///”

# Any custom options
SLAPD_OPTIONS=”-g ldap”

Not even ldap:/// would work. Not quite sure how to add TLSCACertificateFile to openldap, if you believe that is the problem. but ldapwhoami ldap:/// should still work and it will if I change the /etc/sysconfig/slapd to SLAPD_URLS=”ldapi:/// ldaps:///”. Thanks for any thoughs and feedbacks.

Member
kevbuntu

I have solved the part with regard to SLAPD_URLS by adding “ldap:/// ldapi:/// ldaps:///” but not sure the certificated part is correct as ldpas still does not work . I followed these two links but still no joy:

http://www.server-world.info/en/note?os=CentOS_7&p=ssl
http://www.server-world.info/en/note?os=CentOS_7&p=openldap&f=4

Member
mehboob

Hi Dear
Do we have to configure LDAP server in the exam which you showed on this page.
because in exam objectives it says:
**Configure a system to use an existing authentication service for user and group information**

Member
asifshabir

Then, create the /etc/openldap/changes.ldif file and paste the following lines (replace passwd with the previously created password like {SSHA}l8A+0c+lRcymtWuIFbbc3EJ1PRZz9mGg ):

I am stuck in this step. I don’t see any password generated previously ?
Can you please help on this

Member
suresh

Hi CertDepot,
I have a requirement to configure LDAP in production. But i dont want to install OPENLDAP. Do we have any difference between LDAP and OPEN LDAP.. Do you have any configuration steps for LDAP.

2) Once server setup done. how do i configure ldap client, so that i can login to redhat machine with the user which i created on ldap user

Please help me on by two question s

regards
suresh bk

Member
akash.dhongde

Very good article Man I really appreciate it. I just need your help I have configured OpenLdap for my GIT server everything is going well but the only problem with the users password. For every user, I have to set a password but the users are not able to change it after. How do I force the users to change their password at first login?
Please suggest! I have googled it a lot but no possible solution found.

Member
binni

Do we need to install a dns server prior to this openldap server configuration?

Member
Victor
Hello Everyone I am working on configuring ldap using this article. I believe i messed up executing ldapserach returns the following error . [root@linux7 schema]# ldapsearch -x cn=ldapuser01 -b dc=example,dc=com # extended LDIF # # LDAPv3 # base with scope subtree # filter: cn=ldapuser01 # requesting: ALL # # search result search: 2 result: 32 No such object # numResponses: 1 Will be glad if someone can help in rectifying this. Below are few of the details of my settings i have on the Linux machine [root@linux7 schema]# hostname linux7.ak.com [root@linux7 schema]# cat /etc/hosts 127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4 ::1… Read more »
Member
lostsoul352

How do you enable LDAPS? When I tried by editing /etc/sysconfig/slapd and putting in SLAPD_URLS=”ldapi:/// ldap:/// ldaps:///” it doesn’t work.

I get

ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE): Can’t contact LDAP server (-1)

Have you tested this with self-signed certificates?

Member
kevbuntu

Would there be a similar link for ldap replication, this is very good. I am trying this site below for centos 7, seems easy but does not work. Nothing on this site ever worked for me even though looks very well put together.

http://www.server-world.info/en/note?os=CentOS_7&p=openldap&f=5

Member
asifshabir

Is this also an RHCSA exam requirement or we need to configure Client part only ??

Member
scryptkiddy

I wasn’t able to copy / paste the changes.ldif (I’m using VirtualBox, which doesn’t seem to allow copy/paste even though I have clipboard enabled between host and guest…). But I verified it, literally 4 times, very slowly, and its correct.

But apparently its not, I get:
# ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/opnldap/changes.ldif

SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
modifying entry “olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config”

modifying entry “olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config”

modifying entry “olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config”

modifying entry “cn=config”

modifying entry “cn=config”

modifying entry “cn=config”

ldapmodify: invalid format (line 35) entry: “olcDatabase={1}monitor,cn=config”
#
Line 35 is the long one, staring with dn.base… looks good. So hmm, suggestions?

Thanks!

SK

Member
scryptkiddy

Figured it out, there was a hidden line feed that was somehow entered due to the small vbox screen… The pain we IT guys go through just to prepare a server to just prepare for an exam, lol. Dedicated bunch aren’t we?!

Now on to the client side to test my external ldap authentication skills.

SK

Member
sashsz

After the step: “To start the configuration of the LDAP server, add the cosine & nis LDAP schemas” I am getting this error:

ldap_modify: Confidentiality required (13)
additional info: stronger confidentiality required for update

Any ideas?

Member
samuel.sappa

Hi CertDepot,
Need your enlightment for practicing LDAP. Can we use IPA Server instead or this is different?

Member
n40lab

Great article indeed! Really useful for Red Hat and Linux Foundation exams, please keep up the good work!. I’d like to make a suggestion. As netstat is not installed by default in CentOS/RedHat 7 maybe you could change:

netstat -lt | grep ldap

With:

ss -ltap | grep ldap

It seems that ss replaced netstat, but of course you can still use it installing the net-tools package (yum install net-tools).

Cheers!

Member
scruff

Hi, stuck on:
# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f users.ldif

getting the error
ladp_bind: Invalid credentials (49)

Although I used “redhat” as password.

Any ideas?

Member

I would try to reset the password.

Generate a new password:

# slappasswd -h {SSHA}

Create an LDIF to change it:

# cat ./change_pw.ldif
dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcRootPW
olcRootPW: {SSHA}sha_value_you_got_above

Change the password:

# ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f ./change_pw.ldif

Member
RajeevD

Hello! Please help me I’m stuck at here too. I tried several times from scratch (even from fresh CentOS7 installations) but I still get
ladp_bind: Invalid credentials (49)
after
# ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f /etc/openldap/base.ldif

Member
Sami

If you bump into the error:
“ldap_add: Invalid syntax (21)
additional info: objectClass: value #2 invalid per syntax”
when trying to migrate users try:
# grep “:100[1-9]” /etc/passwd > passwd

Member
agentsan

Hi, Thanks for the tutorial. I successfully configured ldap server. I’ve a silly question, while I am configuring ldap client using the gui system-config-authentication command, which certificate i need to download for the TLS encryption download CA Certificate?

Member
centosnoob

Hello CertDepot! Thank you very much for creating this site! I have followed your instructions step-by-step but now I am facing an issue at step “Build the structure of the directory service:” When I use this command:
ldapadd -x -w centos -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f /etc/openldap/base.ldif
I receive the following reply:
ldap_bind: Invalid credentials (49)
Do you know where I have gone wrong? Thank you for your time and help!

Member

What values do you have set for olcRootDN and olcRootPW? Make sure you use these with ldapadd command, as otherwise it will not work.

Member
centosnoob

Ok Thank you. I will start over again and try it out.

Member
wobee

Hello CertDepot and thank you for your tutorial.
I have a problem with it.
When i push the command :” ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/changes.ldif” i have this next error :

SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
modifying entry “olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config”
ldap_modify: No such object (32)
matched DN: cn=config
Could you help me please?

Member

If the file /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG present on your system?

I found that the slapd service runs as the ldap user, and because of this, the directory server is unable to modify any files created by slapadd.

Member
wobee

The file /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG is present.

The service slapd run with the ldap user.

Member
hallo

I’m about half way through, am now at changes.ldif

I’m using a server with a hostname in the format:
servernumber.subdomain.name.com

Can I still use dc=example,dc=com ??

Does it have to be related in any way whatsoever, to the hostname? I understand I’ll have to edit /etc/hosts of the clients I’m setting up.

Member
hallo
OK decided to just change static hostname on the server. Followed this guide *precisely* on a CentOS server and it’s all working now, from a CentOS client. At first I couldn’t get the LDAP client to work on Fedora, so thought maybe the server was misconfigured ? Doesn’t matter anymore. Also, in the middle, I accidentally followed your RHEL6/2014 version of this guide, on a different page, and then when I came back to this RHEL7 version, I couldn’t: systemctl start slapd But I realized that I just had to delete the olcRootPW: line from olcDatabase={2}bdb.ldif Many thanks ! Was… Read more »
Member
ntcong
Hi, Thanks for the excellent article. Question: how can I set the the access permission to each OU (organization unit) ? I mean I have installed LDAP successfully. My domain is ntcong.net, there are 2 OU : People and Group. Currently, when I use the LDAP client, I can access to LDAP server without any username/password (even if LDAP client requires username/password and I enter with invalid username/password, it can access to LDAP server too) So how can I set the username1 can access to ou: People but this user (username1) cannot access to ou: Group ? I am using… Read more »
Member
When you say you can access LDAP server without authentication, do you mean you can bind with invalid password, or you can actually read data with invalid password? You are likely going to need to restrict access, the folloing may work (depending on your LDAP setup obviously): * by dn=”cn=admin,dc=top” write by dn=”cn=autobind,dc=top” read by self write by users read by anonymous auth by * none So the above means that admin can write, autobind can read, anonymous users are provided access to the userPassword attribute for the initial connection to occur, and all users have read access to their… Read more »
Member
Peatross
I ran into the same problem as others with the error:ldap_bind: Invalid credentials (49) I got it to work, but didn’t troubleshoot too much after I got it to work, I’ll leave that to smarter people. So, what I did was change olcRootPW: in changes.ldif to just plain text redhat: olcRootPW:redhat That worked after running: ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/changes.ldif and then: ldapadd -x -w redhat -D cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com -f /etc/openldap/base.ldif just because I was curious, after which I tried again with a newly created hash with the command: slappasswd -s redhat and copied the result from the console… Read more »
Member
tarek.elganainy

Excellent topic. I just stuck in the following step:
[root@rh7 MigrationTools-47]# ./migrate_passwd.pl passwd users.ldif
Undefined subroutine &main::getsuffix called at ./migrate_passwd.pl line 43.

Upcoming Events (CET)

There are no events.

RHCSA7: Task of the day

Allowed time: 10 minutes.
Create an EXT4 file system mounted under /vol based on a logical volume of 100MB.
Reduce the size to 60MB.

RHCE7: Task of the day

Allowed time: 10 minutes.
Set up a default secure MariaDB database called maria and create a table named people with two columns respectively name varchar(20) and age int(10) unsigned.

Poll for favorite RHEL 7 book

 Loading ...

Poll for most difficult RHCSA 7 topic

 Loading ...

Poll for most difficult RHCE 7 topic

 Loading ...
vceplus-200-125    | boson-200-125    | training-cissp    | actualtests-cissp    | techexams-cissp    | gratisexams-300-075    | pearsonitcertification-210-260    | examsboost-210-260    | examsforall-210-260    | dumps4free-210-260    | reddit-210-260    | cisexams-352-001    | itexamfox-352-001    | passguaranteed-352-001    | passeasily-352-001    | freeccnastudyguide-200-120    | gocertify-200-120    | passcerty-200-120    | certifyguide-70-980    | dumpscollection-70-980    | examcollection-70-534    | cbtnuggets-210-065    | examfiles-400-051    | passitdump-400-051    | pearsonitcertification-70-462    | anderseide-70-347    | thomas-70-533    | research-1V0-605    | topix-102-400    | certdepot-EX200    | pearsonit-640-916    | itproguru-70-533    | reddit-100-105    | channel9-70-346    | anderseide-70-346    | theiia-IIA-CIA-PART3    | certificationHP-hp0-s41    | pearsonitcertification-640-916    | anderMicrosoft-70-534    | cathMicrosoft-70-462    | examcollection-cca-500    | techexams-gcih    | mslearn-70-346    | measureup-70-486    | pass4sure-hp0-s41    | iiba-640-916    | itsecurity-sscp    | cbtnuggets-300-320    | blogged-70-486    | pass4sure-IIA-CIA-PART1    | cbtnuggets-100-101    | developerhandbook-70-486    | lpicisco-101    | mylearn-1V0-605    | tomsitpro-cism    | gnosis-101    | channel9Mic-70-534    | ipass-IIA-CIA-PART1    | forcerts-70-417    | tests-sy0-401    | ipasstheciaexam-IIA-CIA-PART3    | mostcisco-300-135    | buildazure-70-533    | cloudera-cca-500    | pdf4cert-2v0-621    | f5cisco-101    | gocertify-1z0-062    | quora-640-916    | micrcosoft-70-480    | brain2pass-70-417    | examcompass-sy0-401    | global-EX200    | iassc-ICGB    | vceplus-300-115    | quizlet-810-403    | cbtnuggets-70-697    | educationOracle-1Z0-434    | channel9-70-534    | officialcerts-400-051    | examsboost-IIA-CIA-PART1    | networktut-300-135    | teststarter-300-206    | pluralsight-70-486    | coding-70-486    | freeccna-100-101    | digitaltut-300-101    | iiba-CBAP    | virtuallymikebrown-640-916    | isaca-cism    | whizlabs-pmp    | techexams-70-980    | ciscopress-300-115    | techtarget-cism    | pearsonitcertification-300-070    | testking-2v0-621    | isacaNew-cism    | simplilearn-pmi-rmp    | simplilearn-pmp    | educationOracle-1z0-809    | education-1z0-809    | teachertube-1Z0-434    | villanovau-CBAP    | quora-300-206    | certifyguide-300-208    | cbtnuggets-100-105    | flydumps-70-417    | gratisexams-1V0-605    | ituonline-1z0-062    | techexams-cas-002    | simplilearn-70-534    | pluralsight-70-697    | theiia-IIA-CIA-PART1    | itexamtips-400-051    | pearsonitcertification-EX200    | pluralsight-70-480    | learn-hp0-s42    | giac-gpen    | mindhub-102-400    | coursesmsu-CBAP    | examsforall-2v0-621    | developerhandbook-70-487    | root-EX200    | coderanch-1z0-809    | getfreedumps-1z0-062    | comptia-cas-002    | quora-1z0-809    | boson-300-135    | killtest-2v0-621    | learncia-IIA-CIA-PART3    | computer-gcih    | universitycloudera-cca-500    | itexamrun-70-410    | certificationHPv2-hp0-s41    | certskills-100-105    | skipitnow-70-417    | gocertify-sy0-401    | prep4sure-70-417    | simplilearn-cisa    |
https://sdm.mit.edu/    | https://sdm.mit.edu/    |